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Table of Contents

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
_______________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
_______________________________________________________________________
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2019
or
TRANSITION REPORTS PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from       to       
Commission File Number: 0-24006
_______________________________________________________________________
NEKTAR THERAPEUTICS
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_______________________________________________________________________
Delaware
 
94-3134940
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
455 Mission Bay Boulevard South
San Francisco, California 94158
(Address of principal executive offices)
415-482-5300
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
Trading symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
 
 
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value
NKTR
NASDAQ Global Select Market
 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x  No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes x  No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
 
Accelerated filer
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No
The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.0001 par value, was 175,274,453 on August 1, 2019.


Table of Contents

NEKTAR THERAPEUTICS
INDEX
 
 
 
 
6
 
 
 
 
 

2

Table of Contents

Forward-Looking Statements
This report includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act). All statements other than statements of historical fact are “forward-looking statements” for purposes of this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, including any projections of market size, earnings, revenue, milestone payments, royalties, sales or other financial items, any statements of the plans and objectives of management for future operations (including, but not limited to, preclinical development, clinical trials and manufacturing), any statements related to our financial condition and future working capital needs, any statements regarding potential future financing alternatives, any statements concerning proposed drug candidates, any statements regarding the timing for the start or end of clinical trials or submission of regulatory approval filings, any statements regarding future economic conditions or performance, any statements regarding the initiation, formation, or success of our collaboration arrangements, timing of commercial launches and product sales levels by our collaboration partners and future payments that may come due to us under these arrangements, any statements regarding our plans and objectives to initiate or continue clinical trials, any statements related to potential, anticipated, or ongoing litigation and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of terminology such as “may,” “will,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “potential” or “continue,” or the negative thereof or other comparable terminology. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements contained herein are reasonable, such expectations or any of the forward-looking statements may prove to be incorrect and actual results could differ materially from those projected or assumed in the forward-looking statements. Our future financial condition and results of operations, as well as any forward-looking statements, are subject to inherent risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risk factors set forth in Part II, Item 1A “Risk Factors” below and for the reasons described elsewhere in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q. All forward-looking statements and reasons why results may differ included in this report are made as of the date hereof and we do not intend to update any forward-looking statements except as required by law or applicable regulations. Except where the context otherwise requires, in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, the “Company,” “Nektar,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Nektar Therapeutics, a Delaware corporation, and, where appropriate, its subsidiaries.
Trademarks
The Nektar brand and product names, including but not limited to Nektar®, contained in this document are trademarks and registered trademarks of Nektar Therapeutics in the United States (U.S.) and certain other countries. This document also contains references to trademarks and service marks of other companies that are the property of their respective owners.

3

Table of Contents

PART I: FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1.
Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements—Unaudited:
NEKTAR THERAPEUTICS
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except par value)
(Unaudited)
 
June 30, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
85,424

 
$
194,905

Short-term investments
1,429,955

 
1,140,445

Accounts receivable
37,299

 
43,213

Inventory
13,188

 
11,381

Advance payments to contract manufacturers
17,738

 
26,450

Other current assets
13,213

 
21,293

Total current assets
1,596,817

 
1,437,687

Long-term investments
276,305

 
582,889

Property, plant and equipment, net
65,453

 
48,851

Operating lease right-of-use assets
82,177

 

Goodwill
76,501

 
76,501

Other assets
2,400

 
4,244

Total assets
$
2,099,653

 
$
2,150,172

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
9,346

 
$
5,854

Accrued compensation
19,710

 
9,937

Accrued clinical trial expenses
29,540

 
14,700

Accrued contract manufacturing expenses
23,159

 
23,841

Other accrued expenses
13,830

 
9,580

Interest payable
4,144

 
4,198

Operating lease liabilities, current portion
3,749

 

Deferred revenue, current portion
9,892

 
13,892

Total current liabilities
113,370

 
82,002

Senior secured notes, net
247,821

 
246,950

Operating lease liabilities, less current portion
94,822

 

Liability related to the sale of future royalties, net
77,813

 
82,911

Deferred revenue, less current portion
8,029

 
10,744

Other long-term liabilities
643

 
9,990

Total liabilities
542,498

 
432,597

Commitments and contingencies


 


Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 10,000 shares authorized; no shares designated or outstanding at June 30, 2019 or December 31, 2018

 

Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 300,000 shares authorized; 174,966 shares and 173,530 shares outstanding at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively
17

 
17

Capital in excess of par value
3,210,398

 
3,147,925

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(788
)
 
(6,316
)
Accumulated deficit
(1,652,472
)
 
(1,424,051
)
Total stockholders’ equity
1,557,155

 
1,717,575

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
2,099,653

 
$
2,150,172

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

4

Table of Contents

NEKTAR THERAPEUTICS
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except per share information)
(Unaudited)
 
Three months ended June 30,
 
Six months ended June 30,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product sales
$
4,346

 
$
5,863

 
$
8,744

 
$
12,158

Royalty revenue
7,343

 
8,563

 
18,733

 
19,639

Non-cash royalty revenue related to sale of future royalties
9,091

 
9,045

 
17,321

 
15,965

License, collaboration and other revenue
2,535

 
1,064,246

 
6,739

 
1,077,973

Total revenue
23,315

 
1,087,717

 
51,537

 
1,125,735

Operating costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of goods sold
5,018

 
5,522

 
10,458

 
12,168

Research and development
106,686

 
88,334

 
225,149

 
187,758

General and administrative
22,581

 
20,261

 
47,587

 
38,948

Total operating costs and expenses
134,285

 
114,117

 
283,194

 
238,874

Income (loss) from operations
(110,970
)
 
973,600

 
(231,657
)
 
886,861

Non-operating income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
(5,231
)
 
(5,385
)
 
(10,457
)
 
(10,725
)
Non-cash interest expense on liability related to sale of future royalties
(5,975
)
 
(4,975
)
 
(12,040
)
 
(9,994
)
Interest income and other income (expense), net
11,989

 
12,105

 
24,472

 
13,676

Total non-operating income (expense), net
783

 
1,745

 
1,975

 
(7,043
)
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes
(110,187
)
 
975,345

 
(229,682
)
 
879,818

Provision (benefit) for income taxes
(278
)
 
3,885

 
(1,261
)
 
4,150

Net income (loss)
$
(109,909
)
 
$
971,460

 
$
(228,421
)
 
$
875,668

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) per share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      Basic
$
(0.63
)
 
$
5.67

 
$
(1.31
)
 
$
5.27

      Diluted
$
(0.63
)
 
$
5.33

 
$
(1.31
)
 
$
4.91

Weighted average shares outstanding used in computing net income (loss) per share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      Basic
174,549

 
171,378

 
174,206

 
166,160

      Diluted
174,549

 
182,291

 
174,206

 
178,281




NEKTAR THERAPEUTICS
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
Three months ended June 30,
 
Six months ended June 30,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Comprehensive income (loss)
$
(107,981
)
 
$
970,254

 
$
(222,893
)
 
$
873,777

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

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NEKTAR THERAPEUTICS
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
Three and six months ended June 30, 2019
 
Common
Shares
 
Par
Value
 
Capital in
Excess of
Par Value
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
 
Accumulated
Deficit
 
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
Balance at December 31, 2018
173,530

 
$
17

 
$
3,147,925

 
$
(6,316
)
 
$
(1,424,051
)
 
$
1,717,575

    Shares issued under equity compensation plans
698

 

 
5,463

 

 

 
5,463

    Stock-based compensation

 

 
25,385

 

 

 
25,385

    Other comprehensive income

 

 

 
3,600

 

 
3,600

    Net loss

 

 

 

 
(118,512
)
 
(118,512
)
Balance at March 31, 2019
174,228

 
$
17

 
$
3,178,773

 
$
(2,716
)
 
$
(1,542,563
)
 
$
1,633,511

    Shares issued under equity compensation plans
738

 

 
7,103

 

 

 
7,103

    Stock-based compensation

 

 
24,522

 

 

 
24,522

    Other comprehensive income

 

 

 
1,928

 

 
1,928

    Net loss

 

 

 

 
(109,909
)
 
(109,909
)
Balance at June 30, 2019
174,966

 
$
17

 
$
3,210,398

 
$
(788
)
 
$
(1,652,472
)
 
$
1,557,155

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

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NEKTAR THERAPEUTICS
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
Three and six months ended June 30, 2018
 
Common
Shares
 
Par
Value
 
Capital in
Excess of
Par Value
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
 
Accumulated
Deficit
 
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
Balance at December 31, 2017
159,524

 
$
15

 
$
2,207,865

 
$
(2,111
)
 
$
(2,117,941
)
 
$
87,828

    Shares issued under equity compensation plans
2,855

 
1

 
34,405

 

 

 
34,406

    Stock-based compensation

 

 
19,949

 

 

 
19,949

    Adoption of new accounting standards

 

 

 

 
12,577

 
12,577

    Other comprehensive loss

 

 

 
(685
)
 

 
(685
)
    Net loss

 

 

 

 
(95,792
)
 
(95,792
)
Balance at March 31, 2018
162,379

 
$
16

 
$
2,262,219

 
$
(2,796
)
 
$
(2,201,156
)
 
$
58,283

    Sale of stock to Bristol-Myers Squibb
8,285

 
1

 
790,230

 

 

 
790,231

    Shares issued under equity compensation plans
1,751

 

 
20,987

 

 

 
20,987

    Stock-based compensation

 

 
20,659

 

 

 
20,659

    Other comprehensive loss

 

 

 
(1,206
)
 

 
(1,206
)
    Net income

 

 

 

 
971,460

 
971,460

Balance at June 30, 2018
172,415

 
$
17

 
$
3,094,095

 
$
(4,002
)
 
$
(1,229,696
)
 
$
1,860,414

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.


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NEKTAR THERAPEUTICS
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
Six months ended June 30,
 
2019
 
2018
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
$
(228,421
)
 
$
875,668

Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
 
 
 
Non-cash royalty revenue related to sale of future royalties
(17,321
)
 
(15,965
)
Non-cash interest expense on liability related to sale of future royalties
12,040

 
9,994

Stock-based compensation
49,907

 
40,608

Depreciation and amortization
6,132

 
5,115

Accretion of discounts, net and other non-cash transactions
(7,826
)
 
(3,991
)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
5,914

 
(19,557
)
Inventory
(1,807
)
 
(1,158
)
Other assets
15,818

 
(14,282
)
Accounts payable
3,480

 
5,791

Accrued compensation
9,773

 
10,717

Other accrued expenses
15,508

 
15,417

Deferred revenue
(6,715
)
 
(6,249
)
Other liabilities
8,701

 
5,068

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
$
(134,817
)
 
$
907,176

Cash flows from investing activities:
 
 
 
Purchases of investments
(603,702
)
 
(989,850
)
Maturities of investments
634,145

 
132,779

Sales of investments

 
11,963

Purchases of property, plant and equipment
(17,291
)
 
(3,730
)
Sales of property, plant and equipment

 
2,633

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
$
13,152

 
$
(846,205
)
Cash flows from financing activities:
 
 
 
Issuance of common stock

 
790,231

Proceeds from shares issued under equity compensation plans
12,200

 
55,208

Net cash provided by financing activities
$
12,200

 
$
845,439

Effect of exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents
(16
)
 
(47
)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
$
(109,481
)
 
$
906,363

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
194,905

 
4,762

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
$
85,424

 
$
911,125

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
 
 
 
Cash paid for interest
$
9,455

 
$
9,795

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

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NEKTAR THERAPEUTICS
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
June 30, 2019
(Unaudited)
Note 1 — Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Organization
We are a research-based biopharmaceutical company headquartered in San Francisco, California and incorporated in Delaware. We are developing a pipeline of drug candidates that utilize our advanced polymer conjugate technology platforms, which are designed to enable the development of new molecular entities that target known mechanisms of action. Our research and development pipeline of new investigational drugs includes treatments for cancer, autoimmune disease and chronic pain.
Our research and development activities have required significant ongoing investment to date and are expected to continue to require significant investment. As a result, we expect to continue to incur substantial losses and negative cash flows from operations in the future. We have financed our operations primarily through cash generated from licensing, collaboration and manufacturing agreements and financing transactions. At June 30, 2019, we had approximately $1.8 billion in cash and investments in marketable securities and debt of $250.0 million in principal of senior secured notes due in October 2020.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
Our consolidated financial statements include the financial position, results of operations and cash flows of our wholly-owned subsidiaries: Nektar Therapeutics (India) Private Limited (Nektar India), Inheris Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Nektar Therapeutics UK Limited. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
We prepared our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements following the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for interim reporting. As permitted under those rules, certain footnotes or other financial information that are normally required by U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for annual periods can be condensed or omitted. In the opinion of management, these financial statements include all normal and recurring adjustments that we consider necessary for the fair presentation of our financial position and operating results.
Our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements are denominated in U.S. dollars. Accordingly, changes in exchange rates between the applicable foreign currency and the U.S. dollar will affect the translation of each foreign subsidiary’s financial results into U.S. dollars for purposes of reporting our consolidated financial results. Translation gains and losses are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss in the stockholders’ equity section of the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. To date, such cumulative currency translation adjustments have not been significant to our consolidated financial position.
Our comprehensive income (loss) consists of our net income (loss) plus our foreign currency translation gains and losses and unrealized holding gains and losses on available-for-sale securities, neither of which were significant during the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018. In addition, there were no significant reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive loss to the statements of operations during the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018.
The accompanying Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements are unaudited. The Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet data as of December 31, 2018 was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements which are included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 filed with the SEC on March 1, 2019. The information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes to those financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Revenue, expenses, assets, and liabilities can vary during each quarter of the year. The results and trends in these interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year or any other period.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Accounting estimates and assumptions are inherently uncertain. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates and

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assumptions. Our estimates include those related to estimated selling prices of performance obligations and estimates of variable consideration in collaboration agreements, estimated royalty revenue, other estimates required for revenue recognition as described further below, the net realizable value of inventory, the impairment of investments, goodwill and long-lived assets, contingencies, accrued clinical trial, contract manufacturing and other expenses, estimated non-cash royalty revenue and non-cash interest expense from our liability related to our sale of future royalties, stock-based compensation, and ongoing litigation, among other estimates. We base our estimates on historical experience and on other assumptions that management believes are reasonable under the circumstances. These estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities when these values are not readily apparent from other sources. As appropriate, estimates are assessed each period and updated to reflect current information and any changes in estimates will generally be reflected in the period first identified.
Reclassifications
Certain items previously reported in specific financial statement captions have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. Such reclassifications do not materially impact previously reported revenue, operating income (loss), net income (loss), total assets, liabilities or stockholders’ equity.
Segment Information
We operate in one business segment which focuses on applying our technology platform to develop novel drug candidates. Our business offerings have similar economics and other characteristics, including the nature of products and manufacturing processes, types of customers, distribution methods and regulatory environment. We are comprehensively managed as one business segment by our Chief Executive Officer.
Significant Concentrations
Our customers are primarily pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that are located in the U.S. and Europe and with whom we have multi-year arrangements. Our accounts receivable balance contains billed and unbilled trade receivables from product sales, milestones, other contingent payments and royalties, as well as reimbursable costs from collaborative research and development agreements. As of June 30, 2019, our accounts receivable includes $12.9 million from contracts with customers and $24.4 million for net expense reimbursements from our collaboration partner Bristol-Myers Squibb. As of December 31, 2018, our accounts receivable includes $24.2 million from contracts with customers and $19.0 million for expense reimbursements from our collaboration partner Bristol-Myers Squibb. We generally do not require collateral from our customers. We perform a regular review of our customers’ credit risk and payment histories, including payments made after period-end. When appropriate, we provide for an allowance for doubtful accounts by reserving for specifically identified doubtful accounts, although historically we have not experienced credit losses from our accounts receivable.
We are dependent on our suppliers and contract manufacturers to provide raw materials and drugs of appropriate quality and reliability and to meet applicable contract and regulatory requirements. In certain cases, we rely on single sources of supply of one or more critical materials. Consequently, in the event that supplies are delayed or interrupted for any reason, our ability to develop and produce our drug candidates or our ability to meet our supply obligations could be significantly impaired, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Adoption of New Accounting Principle
On January 1, 2019, we adopted Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 842, Leases (ASC 842). ASC 842 supersedes the guidance in ASC 840, Leases (ASC 840). Under ASC 842, an entity recognizes a right-of-use asset and a corresponding lease liability, measured as the present value of the lease payments, for leases with terms greater than one year. In our adoption, we used the package of practical expedients, which among other things, allowed us to carry forward the historical lease classification of those leases in effect as of January 1, 2019. We present results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 under ASC 842. We have not restated the results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and continue to report them under ASC 840.
As a result of the adoption of ASC 842 on January 1, 2019, we recorded right-of-use assets of $83.5 million and lease liabilities of $96.2 million with no cumulative effect adjustment to accumulated deficit. Our lease arrangements are further described in Note 4.
Collaborative Arrangements
We enter into collaboration arrangements with pharmaceutical and biotechnology collaboration partners, under which we may grant licenses to our collaboration partners to further develop and commercialize one of our proprietary drug candidates,

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either alone or in combination with the collaboration partners’ compounds, or grant licenses to partners to use our technology to research and develop their own proprietary drug candidates. We may also perform research, development, manufacturing and supply activities under our collaboration agreements. Consideration under these contracts may include an upfront payment, development milestones and other contingent payments, expense reimbursements, royalties based on net sales of approved drugs, and commercial sales milestone payments. Additionally, these contracts may provide options for the customer to purchase our proprietary PEGylation materials, drug candidates or additional contract research and development services under separate contracts.
When we enter into collaboration agreements, we assess whether the arrangements fall within the scope of ASC 808, Collaborative Arrangements (ASC 808) based on whether the arrangements involve joint operating activities and whether both parties have active participation in the arrangement and are exposed to significant risks and rewards. To the extent that the arrangement falls within the scope of ASC 808, we assess whether the payments between us and our collaboration partner fall within the scope of other accounting literature. If we conclude that payments from the collaboration partner to us represent consideration from a customer, such as license fees and contract research and development activities, we account for those payments within the scope of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606). However, if we conclude that our collaboration partner is not a customer for certain activities and associated payments, such as for certain collaborative research, development, manufacturing and commercial activities, we present such payments as a reduction of research and development expense or general and administrative expense, based on where we present the underlying expense.
Revenue Recognition
For elements of those arrangements that we determine should be accounted for under ASC 606, we assess which activities in our collaboration agreements are performance obligations that should be accounted for separately and determine the transaction price of the arrangement, which includes the assessment of the probability of achievement of future milestones and other potential consideration. For arrangements that include multiple performance obligations, such as granting a license or performing contract research and development activities or participation on joint steering or other committees, we allocate upfront and milestone payments under a relative standalone selling price method. Accordingly, we develop assumptions that require judgment to determine the standalone selling price for each performance obligation identified in the contract. These key assumptions may include revenue forecasts, clinical development timelines and costs, discount rates and probabilities of clinical and regulatory success.
Product Sales
Product sales are primarily derived from manufacturing and supply agreements with our customers. We have assessed our current manufacturing and supply arrangements and have generally determined that they provide the customer an option to purchase our proprietary PEGylation materials. Accordingly, we treat each purchase order as a discrete exercise of the customer’s option (i.e. a separate contract) rather than as a component of the overall arrangement. The pricing for the manufacturing and supply is generally at a fixed price and may be subject to annual producer price index (PPI) adjustments. We invoice and recognize product sales when title and risk of loss pass to the customer, which generally occurs upon shipment. Customer payments are generally due 30 days from receipt of invoice. We test our products for adherence to technical specifications before shipment; accordingly, we have not experienced any significant returns from our customers.
Royalty Revenue
Generally, we are entitled to royalties from our collaboration partners based on the net sales of their approved drugs that are marketed and sold in one or more countries where we hold royalty rights. For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including commercial milestone payments based on the level of sales, we have concluded that the license is the predominant item to which the royalties relate. Accordingly, we recognize royalty revenue, including for our non-cash royalties, when the underlying sales occur based on our best estimates of sales of the drugs. Our partners generally pay royalties or commercial milestones after the end of the calendar quarter in accordance with contractual terms. We present commercial milestone payments within license, collaboration and other revenue.
License, Collaboration and other Revenue
License Grants: For collaboration arrangements that include a grant of a license to our intellectual property, we consider whether the license grant is distinct from the other performance obligations included in the arrangement. Generally, we would conclude that the license is distinct if the customer is able to benefit from the license with the resources available to it. For licenses that are distinct, we recognize revenues from nonrefundable, upfront payments and other consideration allocated to the

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license when the license term has begun and we have provided all necessary information regarding the underlying intellectual property to the customer, which generally occurs at or near the inception of the arrangement.
Milestone Payments: At the inception of the arrangement and at each reporting date thereafter, we assess whether we should include any milestone payments or other forms of variable consideration in the transaction price, based on whether a significant reversal of revenue previously recognized is not probable upon resolution of the uncertainty. Since milestone payments may become payable to us upon the initiation of a clinical study or filing for or receipt of regulatory approval, we review the relevant facts and circumstances to determine when we should update the transaction price, which may occur before the triggering event. When we do update the transaction price for milestone payments, we allocate it on a relative standalone selling price basis and record revenue on a cumulative catch-up basis, which results in recognizing revenue for previously satisfied performance obligations in such period. Our partners generally pay development milestones subsequent to achievement of the triggering event.
Research and Development Services: For amounts allocated to our research and development obligations in a collaboration arrangement, we recognize revenue over time using a proportional performance model, representing the transfer of goods or services as we perform activities over the term of the agreement.
Research and Development Expense
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and include salaries, benefits and other operating costs such as outside services, supplies and allocated overhead costs. We perform research and development for our proprietary drug candidates and technology development and for certain third parties under collaboration agreements. For our proprietary drug candidates and our internal technology development programs, we invest our own funds without reimbursement from a third party. Where we perform research and development activities under a clinical joint development collaboration, such as our collaboration with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS), we record the cost reimbursement from our partner as a reduction to research and development expense when reimbursement amounts are due to us under the agreement.
We record an accrued expense for the estimated costs of our clinical trial activities performed by third parties. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows to our vendors. Payments under the contracts depend on factors such as the achievement of certain events, successful enrollment of patients, and completion of certain clinical trial activities. We generally accrue costs associated with the start-up and reporting phases of the clinical trials ratably over the estimated duration of the start-up and reporting phases. We generally accrue costs associated with the treatment phase of clinical trials based on the total estimated cost of the treatment phase on a per patient basis and we expense the per patient cost ratably over the estimated patient treatment period based on patient enrollment in the trials. In specific circumstances, such as for certain time-based costs, we recognize clinical trial expenses using a methodology that we consider to be more reflective of the timing of costs incurred.
We record an accrued expense for the estimated costs of our contract manufacturing activities performed by third parties. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows to our vendors. Payments under the contracts include upfront payments and milestone payments, which depend on factors such as the achievement of the completion of certain stages of the manufacturing process. For purposes of recognizing expense, we assess whether we consider the production process is sufficiently defined to be considered the delivery of a good, as evidenced by predictive or contractually required yields in the production process, or the delivery of a service, where processes and yields are developing and less certain. If we consider the process to be the delivery of a good, we recognize expense when the drug product is delivered, or we otherwise bear risk of loss. If we consider the process to be the delivery of a service, we recognize expense based on our best estimates of the contract manufacturer’s progress towards completion of the stages in the contracts. We recognize and amortize upfront payments and accrue liabilities based on the specific terms of each arrangement. Certain arrangements may provide upfront payments for certain stages of the arrangement and milestone payments for the completion of certain stages, and, accordingly, we may record advance payments for services that have not been completed or goods not delivered and liabilities for stages where the contract manufacturer is entitled to a milestone payment.
Advance payments for goods or services that will be used or rendered for future research and development activities are capitalized as prepaid expenses and recognized as expense as the related goods are delivered or the related services are performed. We base our estimates on the best information available at the time. However, additional information may become available to us which may allow us to make a more accurate estimate in future periods. In this event, we may be required to record adjustments to research and development expenses in future periods when the actual level of activity becomes more certain. Such increases or decreases in cost are generally considered to be changes in estimates and will be reflected in research and development expenses in the period identified.

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Long-Lived Assets
We assess the impairment of long-lived assets whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of the assets may not be fully recoverable. In the case of property, plant and equipment and right-of-use assets, we determine whether there has been an impairment by comparing the carrying value of the asset to the anticipated undiscounted net cash flows associated with the asset. If such cash flows are less than the carrying value, we write down the asset to its fair value, which may be measured as anticipated discounted net cash flows associated with the asset. In the case of goodwill impairment, we compare the carrying value of the reporting unit to its fair value, which we generally measure using market capitalization for our single reporting unit. If an impairment exists, we write down goodwill such that the carrying value of the reporting units equals its fair value.
Income Taxes
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, we recorded an income tax provision for our Nektar India operations at an effective tax rate of approximately 29%. Due to our unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities in the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, we recorded a tax provision against such gain with an offsetting tax benefit in continuing operations of $0.4 million and $1.5 million, respectively. The U.S. federal deferred tax assets generated from our net operating losses have been fully reserved, as we believe it is not more likely than not that the benefit will be realized.
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, as a result of taxable income in India and the U.S., resulting primarily from income recognized from the upfront payment from BMS, we recorded a global income tax provision at an effective tax rate of approximately 0.5%. We expected to have tax liabilities in certain states where we did not have sufficient net operating losses to offset our estimated apportioned taxable income. Our effective tax rate was based on certain assumptions and other estimates regarding the apportionment of taxable income and the states in which we had nexus in 2018. Our apportionment of taxable income included estimates of the apportionment of the BMS upfront payment based on estimates of activities to be carried out under the collaboration agreement with BMS, as well as estimates of the apportionment of other sources of income. Our effective tax rate reflected the release of the valuation allowance of net operating loss carryforwards and other tax credits to offset U.S. federal and state taxable income.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In November 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update 2018-18: Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606 (ASU 2018-18). The guidance clarifies that certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for as revenue under ASC 606 when the collaborative arrangement participant is a customer for a promised good or service that is distinct within the collaborative arrangement. The guidance also precludes entities from presenting amounts related to transactions with a collaborative arrangement participant that is not a customer as revenue, unless those transactions are directly related to third-party sales. ASU 2018-18 is effective in the first quarter of 2020 and should be applied retrospectively to January 1, 2018, when we adopted ASC 606. Early adoption is permitted. We are evaluating the effect of adoption, but we do not expect a material effect on our revenue.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13: Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The guidance modifies the measurement and recognition of credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments. The amendment updates the guidance for measuring and recording credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost by replacing the “incurred loss” model with an “expected loss” model. Accordingly, these financial assets will be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. The amendment also requires that credit losses related to available-for-sale debt securities be recorded as an allowance through net income rather than reducing the carrying amount under the current, other-than-temporary-impairment model. ASU 2016-13 is effective in the first quarter of 2020. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of adoption of this ASU, but we do not anticipate that adoption will have a material effect on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Note 2 — Cash and Investments in Marketable Securities
Cash and investments in marketable securities, including cash equivalents, are as follows (in thousands):
 
Estimated Fair Value at
 
June 30, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
Cash and cash equivalents
$
85,424

 
$
194,905

Short-term investments
1,429,955

 
1,140,445

Long-term investments
276,305

 
582,889

Total cash and investments in marketable securities
$
1,791,684

 
$
1,918,239


We invest in liquid, high quality debt securities. Our investments in debt securities are subject to interest rate risk. To minimize the exposure due to an adverse shift in interest rates, we invest in securities with maturities of two years or less and maintain a weighted average maturity of one year or less. As of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, all of our long-term investments had maturities between one and two years.
Gross unrealized gains and losses were not significant at either June 30, 2019 or December 31, 2018. During the six months ended June 30, 2018, we sold available-for-sale securities totaling $12.0 million, and during the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and the three months ended June 30, 2018, we sold no available-for-sale securities. Gross realized gains and losses on those 2018 sales were not significant. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific identification method.
Under the terms of our 7.75% senior secured notes due October 2020, we are required to maintain a minimum cash and investments in marketable securities balance of $60.0 million.
Our portfolio of cash and investments in marketable securities includes (in thousands):
 
 
 
Estimated Fair Value at
 
Fair Value
Hierarchy
Level
 
June 30, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
Corporate notes and bonds
2
 
$
1,283,731

 
$
1,288,986

Corporate commercial paper
2
 
427,091

 
498,048

Obligations of U.S. government agencies
2
 
13,006

 
12,977

Available-for-sale investments
 
 
1,723,828

 
1,800,011

Money market funds
1
 
58,690

 
105,656

Certificate of deposit
N/A
 
6,872

 
6,760

Cash
N/A
 
2,294

 
5,812

Total cash and investments in marketable securities
 
 
$
1,791,684

 
$
1,918,239


____________________________
Level 1 —
Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 —
Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 —
Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
We use a market approach to value our Level 2 investments. The disclosed fair value related to our investments is based on market prices from a variety of industry standard data providers and generally represents quoted prices for similar assets in active markets or has been derived from observable market data. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, there were no transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.
Additionally, as of June 30, 2019, based on a discounted cash flow analysis using Level 3 inputs including financial discount rates, we believe the fair value of the $250.0 million in principal amount of our 7.75% senior secured notes due October 2020 is approximately $254.1 million. We may redeem some or all of these notes at a redemption price equal to 102% of the principal amount of the notes if the redemption date is prior to October 5, 2019, or 100% of the principal amount of the notes if the redemption date is on or after October 5, 2019, plus, in each case, accrued and unpaid interest to the applicable redemption date.

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Note 3 — Inventory
Inventory consists of the following (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
Raw materials
$
1,757

 
$
1,846

Work-in-process
6,961

 
6,403

Finished goods
4,470

 
3,132

Total inventory
$
13,188

 
$
11,381


Inventory is generally manufactured upon receipt of firm purchase orders from our collaboration partners. Inventory includes direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead and cost is determined on a first-in, first-out basis for raw materials and on a specific identification basis for work-in-process and finished goods. Inventory is valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value and defective or excess inventory is written down to net realizable value based on historical experience or projected usage. Inventory related to our research and development activities is expensed as manufactured by us or when purchased. Before the regulatory approval of our drug candidates, we recognize research and development expense for the manufacture of drug products that could potentially be available to support the commercial launch of our drug candidates, if approved.
Note 4 — Leases
As discussed in Note 1, we adopted ASC 842 as of January 1, 2019. Prior period amounts have not been adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting under ASC 840.
We determine if an arrangement contains a lease at the inception of the arrangement. We include operating leases in operating lease right-of-use assets, operating lease liabilities, current portion, and operating lease liabilities, less current portion in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of June 30, 2019. Right-of-use assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. We recognize operating lease right-of-use assets and liabilities at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the expected lease term. In determining the present value of lease payments, we use our incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the lease commencement date. However, in determining the present value of our lease payments for leases in effect when we adopted ASC 842, we used our incremental borrowing rate as of January 1, 2019. We have elected to recognize lease incentives, such as tenant improvement allowances, at the lease commencement date as a reduction of the right-of-use asset and lease liability until paid to us by the lessor to the extent that the lease provides a specified fixed or maximum level of reimbursement and we are reasonably certain to incur reimbursable costs at least equaling such amounts. For leases in effect as of January 1, 2019, we recognized our lease incentives as part of our transition adjustment. Our expected lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise any such options. We recognize lease expense on a straight-line basis over the expected lease term.
For our facilities leases, we have elected a practical expedient provided by ASC 842 to account for the lease and non-lease components, such as common area maintenance charges, as a single lease component.
In August 2017, we entered into a Lease Agreement (the Mission Bay Lease) with ARE-San Francisco No. 19, LLC (ARE) and terminated our sublease with Pfizer, Inc., effectively extending our lease term from 2020 to 2030 for our 137,046 square foot corporate office and R&D facility located at 455 Mission Bay Boulevard, San Francisco, California (the Mission Bay Facility). The term of the Mission Bay Lease commenced on September 1, 2017, and will expire on January 31, 2030, subject to our right to extend the term of the lease for two consecutive five-year periods, which we have excluded from our determination of the lease term. The monthly base rent for the Mission Bay Facility will escalate over the term of the lease at various intervals. During the term of the Mission Bay Lease, we are responsible for paying our share of operating expenses specified in the lease, including utilities, common area maintenance, insurance and taxes. The Mission Bay Lease also obligates us to rent from ARE a total of an additional approximately 15,000 square feet of space at the Mission Bay Facility. During the six months ended June 30, 2019, ARE delivered 2,690 square feet of space, and therefore we recognized a right-of-use asset and lease liability of $1.3 million for this space. The Mission Bay Lease includes various covenants, indemnities, defaults, termination rights, security deposits and other provisions customary for lease transactions of this nature.
In May 2018, we entered into a Lease Agreement (the Third Street Lease) with Kilroy Realty Finance Partnership, L.P. to lease 135,936 square feet of space located at 360 Third Street, San Francisco, California (the Third Street Facility) from June 2018 to January 31, 2030, subject to our right to extend the term for a consecutive five-year period, which we have excluded from

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our determination of the lease term. An initial 1,726 square feet was delivered in June 2018, and a total of 67,105 square feet for two additional spaces was delivered in December 2018. The remaining space will be delivered in phases during 2019. The Third Street Lease will provide us additional facilities to support increased personnel for our San Francisco-based R&D activities. Our fixed monthly base rent on an industrial gross lease basis includes certain expenses and property taxes paid directly by the landlord and will escalate each year over the term at specified intervals. We have a one-time right of first offer with respect to certain additional rental space at the Third Street Facility. The Third Street Lease includes various covenants, indemnities, defaults, termination rights, security deposits and other provisions customary for lease transactions of this nature.
The components of lease costs, which were included in operating expenses in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations, were as follows (in thousands):
 
Three months ended June 30,
 
Six months ended June 30,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Operating lease cost
$
2,957

 
$
1,886

 
$
5,914

 
$
3,724

Variable lease cost
1,781

 
1,182

 
3,054

 
2,275

Total lease costs
$
4,738

 
$
3,068

 
$
8,968

 
$
5,999


Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities for the six months ended June 30, 2019 was $3.1 million, which we included in net cash provided by (used in) operating activities in our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.
As of June 30, 2019, the maturities of our operating lease liabilities were as follows (in thousands):
Year ended December 31,
 
2019 (Six months ended)
$
4,417

2020
9,690

2021
12,671

2022
13,087

2023
13,515

2024
13,956

2025 and thereafter
78,233

Total lease payments
145,569

Less: portion representing interest
(43,021
)
Less: lease incentives
(3,977
)
Operating lease liabilities
98,571

Less: current portion
(3,749
)
Operating lease liabilities, less current portion
$
94,822


As of June 30, 2019, the weighted-average remaining lease term is 10.6 years and the weighted-average discount rate used to determine the operating lease liability was 6.5%.
Note 5 — Liability Related to Sale of Future Royalties
On February 24, 2012, we entered into a Purchase and Sale Agreement (the Purchase and Sale Agreement) with RPI Finance Trust (RPI), an affiliate of Royalty Pharma, pursuant to which we sold, and RPI purchased, our right to receive royalty payments (the Royalty Entitlement) arising from the worldwide net sales, from and after January 1, 2012, of (a) CIMZIA®, under our license, manufacturing and supply agreement with UCB Pharma (UCB), and (b) MIRCERA®, under our license, manufacturing and supply agreement with F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. (together referred to as Roche). We received aggregate cash proceeds of $124.0 million for the Royalty Entitlement. As part of this sale, we incurred approximately $4.4 million in transaction costs, which will be amortized to interest expense over the estimated life of the Purchase and Sale Agreement. Although we sold all of our rights to receive royalties from the CIMZIA® and MIRCERA® products, as a result of our ongoing manufacturing and supply obligations related to the generation of these royalties, we will continue to account for these royalties as revenue. We recorded the $124.0 million in proceeds from this transaction as a liability (Royalty Obligation) that will be amortized using the interest method over the estimated life of the Purchase and Sale Agreement as royalties from the CIMZIA® and MIRCERA® products are remitted directly to RPI. During the six months ended June 30, 2019

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and 2018, we recognized $17.3 million and $16.0 million, respectively, in non-cash royalty revenue from net sales of CIMZIA® and MIRCERA®, and we recorded $12.0 million and $10.0 million, respectively, of related non-cash interest expense.
We periodically assess the estimated royalty payments to RPI from UCB and Roche, and to the extent such payments are greater or less than our initial estimates or the timing of such payments is materially different from our original estimates, we will prospectively adjust the amortization of the Royalty Obligation. From inception through 2017, our estimate of the total interest expense on the Royalty Obligation resulted in an effective annual interest rate of approximately 17%. During the three months ended December 31, 2017, our estimate of the effective annual interest rate over the life of the agreement increased to 17.6%, which resulted in a prospective interest rate of approximately 21%.  During the three months ended December 31, 2018, primarily as a result of increases in the forecasted sales of MIRCERA®, our estimate of the effective annual interest rate over the life of the agreement increased to 18.7%, which results in a prospective interest rate of 29%.
The Purchase and Sale Agreement grants RPI the right to receive certain reports and other information relating to the Royalty Entitlement and contains other representations and warranties, covenants and indemnification obligations that are customary for a transaction of this nature. To our knowledge, we are currently in compliance with these provisions of the Purchase and Sale Agreement; however, if we were to breach our obligations, we could be required to pay damages to RPI that are not limited to the purchase price we received in the sale transaction.
Note 6 — Commitments and Contingencies
Legal Matters
From time to time, we are involved in lawsuits, arbitrations, claims, investigations and proceedings, consisting of intellectual property, commercial, employment and other matters, which arise in the ordinary course of business. We make provisions for liabilities when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. Such provisions are reviewed at least quarterly and adjusted to reflect the impact of settlement negotiations, judicial and administrative rulings, advice of legal counsel, and other information and events pertaining to a particular case. Litigation is inherently unpredictable. If any unfavorable ruling were to occur in any specific period, there exists the possibility of a material adverse impact on the results of our operations of that period and on our cash flows and liquidity.
On October 30, 2018, we and certain of our executives were named in a putative securities class action complaint filed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, which complaint was subsequently amended on May 15, 2019.  Also, on February 13, 2019, and February 18, 2019, shareholder derivative complaints were filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware naming the CEO, CFO and certain members of Nektar’s board. Both the class action and shareholder derivative actions assert, among other things, that for a period beginning at least from November 11, 2017 through October 2, 2018, our stock was inflated due to alleged misrepresentations about the efficacy and safety of NKTR-214. These cases are in the early stages. Accordingly, we cannot reasonably estimate any range of potential future charges, and we have not recorded any accrual for a contingent liability associated with these legal proceedings. However, an unfavorable resolution could potentially have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations or prospects, and potentially result in paying monetary damages.
Indemnifications in Connection with Commercial Agreements
As part of our collaboration agreements with our partners related to the license, development, manufacture and supply of drugs based on our proprietary technologies and drug candidates, we generally agree to defend, indemnify and hold harmless our partners from and against third party liabilities arising out of the agreement, including product liability (with respect to our activities) and infringement of intellectual property to the extent the intellectual property is developed by us and licensed to our partners. The term of these indemnification obligations is generally perpetual any time after execution of the agreement. There is generally no limitation on the potential amount of future payments we could be required to make under these indemnification obligations.
From time to time, we enter into other strategic agreements such as divestitures and financing transactions pursuant to which we are required to make representations and warranties and undertake to perform or comply with certain covenants, including our obligation to RPI described in Note 5. In the event it is determined that we breached certain of the representations and warranties or covenants made by us in any such agreements, we could incur substantial indemnification liabilities depending on the timing, nature, and amount of any such claims.
To date, we have not incurred costs to defend lawsuits or settle claims related to these indemnification obligations. Because the aggregate amount of any potential indemnification obligation is not a stated amount, the overall maximum amount of

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any such obligations cannot be reasonably estimated. No liabilities have been recorded for these obligations in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at either June 30, 2019 or December 31, 2018.
Note 7 — License and Collaboration Agreements
We have entered into various collaboration agreements including license agreements and collaborative research, development and commercialization agreements with various pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Under these collaboration arrangements, we are entitled to receive license fees, upfront payments, milestone and other contingent payments, royalties, sales milestone payments, and payments for the manufacture and supply of our proprietary PEGylation materials and/or reimbursement for research and development activities. All of our collaboration agreements are generally cancelable by our partners without significant financial penalty. Our costs of performing these services are generally included in research and development expense, except that costs for product sales to our collaboration partners are included in cost of goods sold. We analyze our agreements to determine whether we should account for the agreements within the scope of ASC 808, and, if so, we analyze whether we should account for any elements under ASC 606. In accordance with our collaboration agreements, we recognized license, collaboration and other revenue as follows (in thousands):
 
 
 
 
Three months ended June 30,
 
Six months ended June 30,
Partner
 
Drug or Drug Candidate
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Bristol-Myers Squibb
 
NKTR-214
 

 
1,059,768

 

 
1,059,768

Eli Lilly and Company
 
NKTR-358
 
1,200

 
3,052

 
3,700

 
5,406

Baxalta Incorporated/Takeda
 
ADYNOVATE®
 
58

 
18

 
78

 
10,028

Amgen, Inc.
 
Neulasta®
 
1,250

 
1,250

 
2,500

 
2,500

Other
 
 
 
27

 
158

 
461

 
271

License, collaboration and other revenue
 
 
 
$
2,535

 
$
1,064,246

 
6,739

 
$
1,077,973


In the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, we recognized $16.4 million and $36.1 million of revenue for performance obligations that we had satisfied in prior periods, respectively. This amount includes all of our royalty revenue and non-cash royalty revenue because these royalties substantially relate to the licenses that we had previously granted.
In the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, we recognized $17.6 million and $45.6 million of revenue for performance obligations that we had satisfied in prior periods. This amount includes all of our royalty revenue and non-cash royalty revenue because these royalties substantially relate to the licenses that we had previously granted. This amount also includes the $10.0 million development milestone payment earned and received from Baxalta in the six months ended June 30, 2018 described below.
The following table presents the changes in our deferred revenue balance from our collaboration agreements during the six months ended June 30, 2019 (in thousands):
 
Six months ended
June 30,
2019
Deferred revenue—December 31, 2018
$
24,636

Recognition of previously unearned revenue
(6,715
)
Deferred revenue—June 30, 2019
$
17,921


Our balance of deferred revenue contains the transaction price from our collaboration agreements allocated to performance obligations which are partially unsatisfied. We expect to recognize approximately $9.9 million of our deferred revenue over the next twelve months and recognize the remaining $8.0 million over several years. 
As of June 30, 2019, our collaboration agreements with partners included potential future payments for development and regulatory milestones totaling approximately $1.7 billion, including amounts from our agreements with BMS and Lilly described below. In addition, under our collaboration agreements we are entitled to receive contingent sales milestone payments, other contingent payments and royalty payments, as described below.
There have been no material changes to our collaboration agreements in the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, except as described below.

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Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS): Bempegaldesleukin, also referred to as NKTR-214
On February 13, 2018, we entered into a Strategic Collaboration Agreement (BMS Collaboration Agreement) and a Share Purchase Agreement with BMS, both of which became effective on April 3, 2018. Pursuant to these agreements, we and BMS are jointly developing NKTR-214, including, without limitation, in combination with BMS’s Opdivo® (nivolumab) and Opdivo® plus Yervoy® (ipilimumab), and other compounds of BMS, us or any third party. The parties have agreed to jointly commercialize NKTR-214 on a worldwide basis. We retained the right to record all worldwide sales for NKTR-214. We will share global commercialization profits and losses with BMS for NKTR-214, with Nektar sharing 65% and BMS sharing 35% of the net profits and losses. The parties will share the internal and external development costs for NKTR-214 in combination regimens based on each party’s relative ownership interest in the compounds included in the regimens. In accordance with the agreement, the parties will share development costs for NKTR-214 in combination with Opdivo®, 67.5% of costs to BMS and 32.5% to Nektar, and for NKTR-214 in a triplet combination with Opdivo® and Yervoy®, 78% of costs to BMS and 22% to Nektar. The parties will share costs for the production of NKTR-214, 35% of costs to BMS and 65% to Nektar.
The BMS Collaboration Agreement superseded and replaced the Clinical Trial Agreement we entered into with BMS in September 2016 to develop NKTR-214 in combination with Opdivo®. Under the Clinical Trial Agreement, we acted as the sponsor of each Combination Therapy Trial and BMS was responsible for 50% of all out-of-pocket costs reasonably incurred in connection with third party contract research organizations, laboratories, clinical sites and institutional review boards. We recorded cost reimbursement payments to us from BMS as a reduction to research and development expense. Each party was otherwise responsible for its own internal costs, including internal personnel costs, incurred in connection with each Combination Therapy Trial.
Upon the effective date of the BMS Collaboration Agreement in April 2018, BMS paid us a non-refundable upfront cash payment of $1.0 billion. We are eligible to receive additional cash payments up to a total of approximately $1.4 billion upon the achievement of certain development and regulatory milestones and up to a total of $350.0 million upon the achievement of certain sales milestones. In April 2018, BMS also purchased 8,284,600 shares of our common stock pursuant to the Share Purchase Agreement for total additional cash consideration of $850.0 million.
We determined that the BMS Collaboration Agreement falls within the scope of ASC 808. As mentioned above, BMS shares certain percentages of development costs incurred by us and we share certain percentages of development costs incurred by BMS. We consider these activities to represent collaborative activities under ASC 808, and we recognize such cost sharing proportionately with the performance of the underlying services. We recognize BMS’ reimbursement of our costs as a reduction of research and development expense and our reimbursement of BMS’ costs as research and development expense. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, we recorded $24.6 million and $53.4 million, respectively, as a reduction of research and development expenses for BMS’ share of our expenses, net of our share of BMS’ expenses. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, we recorded $21.5 million and $23.8 million, respectively, as a reduction of research and development expenses for BMS’ share of our expenses, net of our share of BMS’ expenses. As of June 30, 2019, we have recorded a receivable of $24.4 million from BMS in accounts receivable in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet.
We analogized to ASC 606 for the accounting for our two performance obligations, consisting of the delivery of the licenses to develop and commercialize NKTR-214 and our participation on joint steering and other collaboration committees. We determined that our committee participation is not material.
We aggregated the total consideration of $1.85 billion received under the agreements and allocated it between the stock purchase and the revenue-generating elements, because we and BMS negotiated the agreements together and the effective date of the BMS Collaboration Agreement was dependent upon the effective date of the Share Purchase Agreement. We recorded the estimated fair value of the shares of $790.2 million in stockholders’ equity based on the closing date price of our common stock of $99.36, adjusted for a discount for lack of marketability reflecting the unregistered nature of the shares. We allocated the remaining $1,059.8 million to the transaction price of the collaboration agreement. We consider the future potential development, regulatory and sales milestones of up to approximately $1.8 billion to be variable consideration. We excluded these milestones from the transaction price as of June 30, 2019 due to the significant uncertainties involved with clinical development and regulatory approval. We will re-evaluate the transaction price at each reporting period and as uncertain events are resolved or other changes in circumstances occur.
Accordingly, we allocated the entire transaction price of $1,059.8 million to the granting of the licenses and therefore recognized $1,059.8 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 as license, collaboration and other revenue.

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Eli Lilly and Company (Lilly): NKTR-358
On July 23, 2017, we entered into a worldwide license agreement with Eli Lilly and Company (Lilly), which became effective on August 23, 2017, to co-develop NKTR-358, a novel immunological drug candidate that we invented. Under the terms of the agreement, we (i) received an initial payment of $150.0 million in September 2017 and are eligible for up to $250.0 million in additional development milestones, (ii) will co-develop NKTR-358 with Lilly, for which we are responsible for completing Phase 1 clinical development and certain drug product development and supply activities, (iii) will share with Lilly Phase 2 development costs with 75% of those costs borne by Lilly and 25% of the costs borne by us, (iv) will have the option to contribute funding to Phase 3 development on an indication-by-indication basis ranging from zero to 25% of development costs, and (v) will have the opportunity to receive up to double-digit sales royalty rates that escalate based upon our Phase 3 development cost contribution and the level of annual global product sales. Lilly will be responsible for all costs of global commercialization and we will have an option to co-promote in the U.S. under certain conditions. A portion of the development milestones may be reduced by 50% under certain conditions, related to the final formulation of the approved product and the timing of prior approval (if any) of competitive products with a similar mechanism of action, which could reduce these milestone payments by 75% if both conditions occur.
The agreement will continue until Lilly no longer has any royalty payment obligations or, if earlier, the termination of the agreement in accordance with its terms. The agreement may be terminated by Lilly for convenience, and may also be terminated under certain other circumstances, including material breach.
We identified our license grant to Lilly, our ongoing Phase 1 clinical development obligation and our drug product development obligation as the significant performance obligations in the arrangement. The valuation of each performance obligation involves significant estimates and assumptions, including but not limited to, expected market opportunity and pricing, assumed royalty rates, clinical trial costs, timelines and likelihood of success; in each case these estimates and assumptions covering long time periods. We determined the selling price for the license based on a discounted cash flow analysis of projected revenues from NKTR-358 and development and commercial costs using a discount rate based on a market participant’s weighted average cost of capital adjusted for forecasting risk. We determined the selling prices for our Phase 1 clinical development and drug product development deliverables based on the nature of the services to be performed and estimates of the associated efforts and third-party rates for similar services.
Although we are entitled to significant development milestones under this arrangement, as of June 30, 2019, we have excluded such milestones from the transaction price due to the significant uncertainties involved with clinical development. We have therefore determined the transaction price to consist of the upfront payment of $150.0 million in September 2017. Based on our estimates of the standalone selling prices of the performance obligations, we allocated the $150.0 million upfront payment as $125.9 million to the license, $17.6 million to the Phase 1 clinical development and $6.5 million to the drug product development.
We recognized the $125.9 million of revenue allocated to the license upon the effective date of the license agreement in August 2017, since we determined that the license was a right to use our intellectual property, for which, as of the effective date, we had provided all necessary information to Lilly to benefit from the license and the license term had begun. We recognize revenue for the Phase 1 clinical development and drug product development using an input method, using costs incurred, as this method depicts our progress towards providing Lilly with the results of clinical trials and drug production processes. As of June 30, 2019, we have deferred revenue of approximately $4.6 million related to this agreement, which we expect to recognize through December 2019, the estimated end of our performance obligations under this agreement.
Baxalta Incorporated/Takeda: Hemophilia
We are a party to an exclusive research, development, license and manufacturing and supply agreement with Baxalta Incorporated (Baxalta), a subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd. (Takeda), entered into in September 2005 to develop products designed to improve therapies for Hemophilia A patients using our PEGylation technology. Under the terms of the agreement, we are entitled to research and development funding for our active programs, which are now complete for Factor VIII, and are responsible for supplying Takeda with its requirements for our proprietary materials. Takeda is responsible for all clinical development, regulatory, and commercialization expenses. The agreement is terminable by the parties under customary conditions.
This Hemophilia A program includes ADYNOVATE®, which was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2015 for use in adults and adolescents, aged 12 years and older, who have Hemophilia A, and is now marketed in the U.S., the European Union, and many other countries. As a result of the marketing authorization in the EU in January 2018, we earned a $10.0 million development milestone, which was received in March 2018. We updated the transaction price for this milestone in January 2018 since we had previously excluded it due to the significant uncertainty from regulatory approval. Based on the terms of this milestone, we allocated the entire milestone to the license grant and research and

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development services, and therefore recognized the entire $10.0 million in the six months ended June 30, 2018 as we had previously satisfied those performance obligations. In December 2018, we earned an additional $10.0 million milestone for annual sales of ADYNOVATE®/ADYNOVI reaching a certain specified amount. In addition, we are entitled to an additional sales milestone upon achievement of an annual sales target and royalties based on annual worldwide net sales of products resulting from this agreement.
In October 2017, we entered into a right to sublicense agreement with Baxalta, under which we granted to Baxalta the right to grant a nonexclusive sublicense to certain patents that were previously exclusively licensed to Baxalta under our 2005 agreement. Under the right to sublicense agreement, Baxalta paid us $12.0 million in November 2017 and agreed to pay us single digit royalty payments based upon net sales of the products covered under the sublicense throughout the term of the agreement.
Our remaining unsatisfied performance obligation consists of our ongoing supply of PEGylation materials at a price less than the standalone selling price of these materials. As of June 30, 2019, our deferred revenue from this arrangement is not significant.
Amgen, Inc.: Neulasta® 
In October 2010, we amended and restated an existing supply and license agreement by entering into a supply, dedicated suite and manufacturing guarantee agreement (the Amended and Restated Agreement) and a license agreement with Amgen Inc. and Amgen Manufacturing, Limited (together referred to as Amgen). Under the terms of the Amended and Restated Agreement, we received a $50.0 million payment in the fourth quarter of 2010 in return for our guaranteeing the supply of certain quantities of our proprietary PEGylation materials to Amgen.
We determined that our obligation to manufacture and supply our PEGylation materials and to maintain the dedicated manufacturing suite solely for the production of such materials for Amgen represented an obligation to stand ready to manufacture such materials. We concluded that we should recognize revenue based on the passage of time as this method depicts the satisfaction of Amgen’s right to require production of PEGylation materials at any time. As of June 30, 2019, we have deferred revenue of approximately $6.7 million related to this agreement, which we expect to recognize through October 2020, the estimated end of our obligations under this agreement.
AstraZeneca AB: MOVANTIK® (naloxegol oxalate), previously referred to as naloxegol and NKTR-118
In September 2009, we entered into an agreement with AstraZeneca AB (AstraZeneca) under which we granted AstraZeneca a worldwide, exclusive license under our patents and other intellectual property to develop, market, and sell MOVANTIK®. AstraZeneca is responsible for all research, development and commercialization and is responsible for all drug development and commercialization decisions for MOVANTIK®. In September 2014 and December 2014, MOVANTIK® /MOVENTIG® was approved in the US and EU, respectively. As of June 30, 2019, we have received a total of $385.0 million of upfront and contingent milestone payments from this agreement, all of which was received in or before 2015. In addition, we are entitled to significant and escalating double-digit royalty payments and sales milestone payments based on annual worldwide net sales of MOVANTIK®.
In March 2016, AstraZeneca announced that it had entered into an agreement with ProStrakan Group plc, a subsidiary of Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co. Ltd. (Kirin), granting Kirin exclusive marketing rights to MOVENTIG® in the EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Under our license agreement with AstraZeneca, we and AstraZeneca will share the upfront payment, market access milestone payments, royalties and sales milestone payments made by Kirin to AstraZeneca with AstraZeneca receiving 60% and Nektar receiving 40%. As of June 30, 2019, we do not have deferred revenue related to our agreement with AstraZeneca.
Other
In addition, as of June 30, 2019, we have a number of other collaboration agreements, including with our collaboration partners UCB Pharma and Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc., under which we are entitled to up to a total of $45.5 million of development milestone payments upon achievement of certain development objectives, as well as sales milestones upon achievement of annual sales targets and royalties based on net sales of commercialized products, if any. However, given the current phase of development of the potential products under these collaboration agreements, we cannot estimate the probability or timing of achieving these milestones and, therefore, have excluded all development milestones from the respective transaction prices for these agreements. As of June 30, 2019, we have deferred revenue of approximately $6.0 million related to these other collaboration agreements.

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Note 8 — Stock-Based Compensation
Total stock-based compensation expense was recognized in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations as follows (in thousands):
 
Three months ended June 30,
 
Six months ended June 30,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Cost of goods sold
$
1,086

 
$
1,163

 
$
2,089

 
$
2,294

Research and development
15,430

 
12,990

 
31,870

 
25,084

General and administrative
8,006

 
6,506

 
15,948

 
13,230

Total stock-based compensation
$
24,522

 
$
20,659

 
$
49,907

 
$
40,608


During the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, we granted 95,000 and 528,975 stock options, respectively, and these options had a weighted average grant-date fair value of $17.00 per share and $44.32 per share, respectively. During the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, we granted 115,455 and 738,675 stock options, respectively, and these options had a weighted average grant-date fair value of $18.51 per share and $41.53 per share, respectively. During the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, we granted 262,750 and 396,240 RSUs, respectively. During the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, we granted 395,570 and 406,240 RSUs, respectively, and these RSUs had a weighted average grant-date fair value of $34.85 per share and $53.44 per share, respectively.
As a result of stock issuances under our equity compensation plans, during the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, we issued 738,538 and 1,750,908 shares of our common stock, respectively, and during the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, we issued 1,436,538 and 4,605,724 shares of our common stock, respectively.
Note 9 — Net Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is calculated based on the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the periods presented. Diluted net income (loss) per share is calculated based on the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding, including potentially dilutive securities. For all periods presented in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations, the net income (loss) available to common stockholders is equal to the reported net income (loss).
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, basic and diluted net loss per share are the same due to our net losses and the requirement to exclude potentially dilutive securities which would have an antidilutive effect on net loss per share. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, potentially dilutive securities consisted of common shares underlying outstanding stock options and RSUs. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, there were weighted average outstanding stock options and RSUs of 18.0 million and 18.4 million shares, respectively.
The calculation of diluted earnings per share includes the weighted-average of potentially dilutive securities, which consists of shares of common stock underlying outstanding stock options and RSUs. The effect of these dilutive securities under the treasury stock method was approximately 10.9 million and 12.1 million shares for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, shares of common stock underlying outstanding stock options totaling approximately 3.2 million and 3.1 million weighted-average shares outstanding, respectively, were excluded from the computation of diluted net income per share for that period because their effect was antidilutive.

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Item 2.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed here. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to those discussed in this section as well as factors described in Part II, Item 1A “Risk Factors.”
Overview
Strategic Direction of Our Business
Nektar Therapeutics is a research-based biopharmaceutical company that discovers and develops innovative new medicines in areas of high unmet medical need. Our research and development pipeline of new investigational drugs includes treatments for cancer, autoimmune disease and chronic pain. We leverage our proprietary and proven chemistry platform to discover and design new drug candidates. These drug candidates utilize our advanced polymer conjugate technology platforms, which are designed to enable the development of new molecular entities that target known mechanisms of action. We continue to make significant investments in building and advancing our pipeline of proprietary drug candidates as we believe that this is the best strategy to build long-term stockholder value.
In immuno-oncology, we are executing a broad clinical development for bempegaldesleukin, also referred to as NKTR-214, in collaboration with BMS as well as other independent development work evaluating NKTR-214 in combination with other agents with potential complementary mechanisms of action. We expect our research and development expense to continue to grow over the next few years as we expand and execute a very broad clinical development program for NKTR-214. For development work within our collaboration development plan, we share development costs based on each party’s relative ownership interest in the compounds included in the regimen. For example, we share development costs for NKTR-214 in combination with Opdivo®, BMS 67.5% and Nektar 32.5%, and for NKTR-214 in a triplet combination with Opdivo® and Yervoy®, BMS 78% and Nektar 22%. For costs of producing NKTR-214, however, BMS is responsible for 35% and Nektar is responsible for 65% of costs. Under our collaboration development plan, we have started registration enabling studies in first line melanoma, first line renal cell carcinoma, cisplatin ineligible, locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer, second line metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (post-checkpoint inhibitor and chemotherapy), and we are in the process of finalizing the registrational studies in additional tumor types that we will execute under the collaboration. We announced in August that the FDA informed us that it had granted a Breakthrough Therapy designation for NKTR-214 in combination with Opdivo® for the treatment of patients with untreated unresectable or metastatic melanoma. Our share of development costs under the collaboration development plan is limited to an annual cap of $125 million. To the extent this annual cap is exceeded, we will recognize our full share of the research and development expense and BMS will reimburse us for the amount over the annual cap and it will be recorded as a contingent liability. This contingent liability will be paid to BMS only if NKTR-214 is approved and solely by reducing a portion of our share of net profits following the first commercial sale of NKTR-214. In addition, under the BMS collaboration agreement, we are entitled to $1.43 billion of regulatory and commercial launch milestones, $650 million of which are associated with approval and launch of NKTR-214 in its first indication in the U.S., EU and Japan. As a result, whether and when NKTR-214 is approved in any indication will have a significant impact on our future results of operations and financial condition.
Outside of the collaboration development plan with BMS, we are conducting a broad array of research and development activities evaluating NKTR-214 in combination with other agents that have potential complementary mechanisms of action. Our strategic objective is to establish NKTR-214 as a key component of many immuno-oncology combination regimens with the potential to enhance the standard of care in multiple oncology settings. On November 6, 2018, we entered into a clinical collaboration with Pfizer to evaluate several combination regimens in multiple cancer settings, including metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.  The combination regimens in this collaboration will evaluate NKTR-214 with avelumab, a human anti-PD-L1 antibody in development by Merck KGaA, and Pfizer; talazoparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor developed by Pfizer; or enzalutamide, an androgen receptor inhibitor in development by Pfizer and Astellas Pharma Inc. We are planning a Phase 1 study this year in pancreatic cancer patients in collaboration with BioXcel to evaluate a triplet combination of NKTR-214, BXCL-701 (a small molecule immune-modulator, DPP 8/9), and avelumab being supplied to BioXcel by Pfizer and Merck KGaA. We are also working in collaboration with Vaccibody AS to evaluate in a Phase 1 proof-of-concept study combining NKTR-214 with Vaccibody’s personalized cancer neoantigen vaccine. With our non-BMS clinical collaborations for NKTR-214, we generally equally share clinical development costs on a substantially pro-rata basis. We expect to continue to make significant and increasing investments exploring the potential of NKTR-214 with mechanisms of action that we believe are synergistic with NKTR-214 based on emerging scientific findings in cancer biology and preclinical development work.  
We are also advancing other molecules in our immuno-oncology portfolio. NKTR-262 is a small molecule agonist that targets toll-like receptors found on innate immune cells in the body. NKTR-262 is designed to stimulate the innate immune

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system and promote maturation and activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC), such as dendritic cells, which are critical to induce the body’s adaptive immunity and create antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells. NKTR-262 is being developed as an intra-tumoral injection in combination with systemic NKTR-214 in order to induce an abscopal response and achieve the goal of complete tumor regression in cancer patients treated with both therapies. The Phase 1 dose-escalation trial is currently ongoing. NKTR-255 is a biologic that targets the interleukin-15 (IL-15) pathway in order to activate the body’s innate and adaptive immunity. Signaling of the IL-15 pathway enhances the survival and function of natural killer (NK) cells and induces survival of both effector and CD8 memory T cells. Preclinical findings suggest NKTR-255 has the potential to synergistically combine with antibody dependent cellular toxicity molecules as well as enhance CAR-T therapies. We continue the development of NKTR-255, including the filing of an Investigative New Drug (IND) application with the FDA for which we received confirmation on July 26, 2019 that our proposed first-in-human Phase 1 study may proceed, and we are planning to begin this clinical trial in the second half of this year. We are also designing other clinical trials in both liquid and solid tumor settings.  
In immunology, we are developing NKTR-358, which is designed to correct the underlying immune system imbalance in the body that occurs in patients with autoimmune disease. NKTR-358 is designed to optimally target the IL-2 receptor complex in order to stimulate proliferation and growth of regulatory T cells. NKTR-358 is being developed as a once or twice monthly self-administered injection for a number of autoimmune diseases. In 2017, we entered into a worldwide license agreement with Eli Lilly and Company (Lilly) to co-develop NKTR-358. We received an initial payment of $150.0 million in September 2017 and are eligible for up to an additional $250.0 million for development and regulatory milestones. We are responsible for completing Phase 1 clinical development and certain drug product development and supply activities. We also share Phase 2 development costs with Lilly, with 75% of those costs borne by Lilly and 25% of the costs borne by us. We will have the option to contribute funding to Phase 3 development on an indication-by-indication basis, ranging from zero to 25% of the Phase 3 development costs. Lilly will be responsible for all costs of global commercialization and we will have an option to co-promote in the U.S. under certain conditions. We have completed the first Phase 1 dose-finding trial of NKTR-358 to evaluate single-ascending doses of NKTR-358 in approximately 100 healthy patients. The Phase 1 multiple-ascending dose trial to evaluate NKTR-358 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was initiated in May 2018 and has completed enrollment.
In pain, we are developing NKTR-181 for the treatment of chronic low back pain in adult patients. NKTR-181 met its primary and key secondary endpoints in the SUMMIT-07 Phase 3 efficacy study in opioid-naïve patients with chronic low back pain and also demonstrated positive results in a pivotal human abuse potential study, long-term safety study, and several other clinical and non-clinical studies.
We filed an NDA for NKTR-181 and the FDA’s current Prescription Drug User Fee Act (“PDUFA”) target action date is August 29, 2019. As part of the regulatory review process, we expected our NDA for the NKTR-181 product to be discussed at an advisory committee organized by the FDA. On July 23, 2019, we received a General Advice Letter (“Letter”) from the FDA stating that it is postponing product-specific advisory committee meetings for opioid analgesics, including one that was previously scheduled for August 21, 2019 to discuss our NDA for the NKTR-181 product, while the agency continues to consider a number of scientific and policy issues relating to this class of drugs. The Letter further stated that the FDA will continue to review the NDA for NKTR-181, but that it is possible the agency may not be able to meet the PDUFA date, due to the postponement of the advisory committee meeting. We will continue to work closely with the FDA as they continue their review of the NDA for NKTR-181.
If approved, we plan to commercialize NKTR-181 through a separate subsidiary company with one or more potential capital partners to support commercial launch. Since we have not yet completed our work to establish a commercial launch capability for NKTR-181, there remains substantial risk and uncertainties related to successful and timely completion of establishing this commercialization infrastructure for NKTR-181.
The level of our future research and development investment will depend on a number of trends and uncertainties including clinical outcomes, future studies required to advance programs to regulatory approval, and the economics related to potential future collaborations that may include up-front payments, development funding, milestones, and royalties. Over the next several years, we plan to continue to make significant investments to advance our early drug candidate pipeline.
We have historically derived all of our revenue and substantial amounts of operating capital from our collaboration agreements including the BMS collaboration for NKTR-214 that was effective on April 3, 2018, pursuant to which we recognized $1.06 billion in revenue and recorded $790.2 million in additional paid in capital for shares of our common stock issued in the transaction. While in the near-term we continue to expect to generate substantially all of our revenue from collaboration arrangements, including the potential $1.43 billion in development and regulatory milestones under the BMS collaboration, in the medium- to long-term our plan is to generate significant revenue from proprietary products including NKTR-181 and NKTR-214. Since we do not have experience commercializing products or an established commercialization organization, there will be substantial risks and uncertainties in future years as we build commercial, organizational, and operational capabilities.

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We also receive royalties and milestones from two approved drugs. We have a collaboration with AstraZeneca for MOVANTIK®, an oral peripherally-acting mu-opioid antagonist for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in adult patients with non-cancer pain which was approved by the FDA and subsequently launched in March 2015 and MOVENTIG®, for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in adult patients who have an inadequate response to laxatives, which was approved by health authorities in the European Union and many other countries beginning in 2014. We have a collaboration with Baxalta (a wholly-owned subsidiary of Takeda) for ADYNOVATE®, that was approved by the FDA in late 2015 for use in adults and adolescents, aged 12 years and older, who have Hemophilia A. ADYNOVI was approved by health authorities in Europe in January 2018, and has also been approved in many other countries.
Our business is subject to significant risks, including the risks inherent in our development efforts, the results of our clinical trials, our dependence on the marketing efforts by our collaboration partners, uncertainties associated with obtaining and enforcing patents, the lengthy and expensive regulatory approval process and competition from other products. For a discussion of these and some of the other key risks and uncertainties affecting our business, see Part II, Item 1A “Risk Factors.”
While the approved drugs and clinical development programs described above are key elements of our future success, we believe it is critically important that we continue to make substantial investments in our earlier-stage drug candidate pipeline. We have several drug candidates in earlier stage clinical development or being explored in research that we are preparing to advance into the clinic in future years. We are also advancing several other drug candidates in preclinical development in the areas of immuno-oncology, immunology, and other therapeutic indications. We believe that our substantial investment in research and development has the potential to create significant value if one or more of our drug candidates demonstrates positive clinical results, receives regulatory approval in one or more major markets and achieves commercial success. Drug research and development is an inherently uncertain process, and there is a high risk of failure at every stage prior to approval, and the timing and outcome of clinical trial results are extremely difficult to predict. Clinical development successes and failures can have a disproportionately positive or negative impact on our scientific and medical prospects, financial condition and prospects, results of operations and market value.

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Key Developments and Trends in Liquidity and Capital Resources
We estimate that we have working capital to fund our current business plans through at least the next twelve months. As of June 30, 2019, we had approximately $1.8 billion in cash and investments in marketable securities and had debt of $250.0 million in principal of senior secured notes due in October 2020.
Results of Operations
Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2019 and 2018
Revenue (in thousands, except percentages)
 
Three months ended June 30,
 
Increase/
(Decrease)
2019 vs. 2018
 
Percentage
Increase/
(Decrease)
2019 vs. 2018
 
2019
 
2018
 
 
 
 
Product sales
$
4,346

 
$
5,863

 
$
(1,517
)
 
(26
)%
Royalty revenue
7,343

 
8,563

 
(1,220
)
 
(14
)%
Non-cash royalty revenue related to sale of future royalties
9,091

 
9,045

 
46

 
1
 %
License, collaboration and other revenue
2,535

 
1,064,246

 
(1,061,711
)
 
(100
)%
Total revenue
$
23,315

 
$
1,087,717

 
$
(1,064,402
)
 
(98
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Six months ended June 30,
 
Increase/
(Decrease)
2019 vs. 2018
 
Percentage
Increase/
(Decrease)
2019 vs. 2018
 
2019
 
2018
 
 
 
 
Product sales
$
8,744

 
$
12,158

 
$
(3,414
)
 
(28
)%
Royalty revenue
18,733

 
19,639

 
(906
)
 
(5
)%
Non-cash royalty revenue related to sale of future royalties
17,321

 
15,965

 
1,356

 
8
 %
License, collaboration and other revenue
6,739

 
1,077,973

 
(1,071,234
)
 
(99
)%
Total revenue
$
51,537

 
$
1,125,735

 
$
(1,074,198
)
 
(95
)%
Our revenue is derived from our collaboration agreements, under which we may receive product sales revenue, royalties, license fees, milestone and other contingent payments and/or contract research payments. Revenue is recognized when we transfer promised goods or services to our collaboration partners. The amount of upfront fees received under our license and collaboration agreements allocated to continuing obligations, such as manufacturing and supply commitments, is generally recognized as we deliver products or provide development services. As a result, there may be significant variations in the timing of receipt of cash payments and our recognition of revenue. We make our best estimate of the timing and amount of products and services expected to be required to fulfill our performance obligations. Given the uncertainties in research and development collaborations, significant judgment is required by us to make these estimates.
Product Sales
Product sales include predominantly fixed price manufacturing and supply agreements with our collaboration partners and are the result of firm purchase orders from those partners. The timing of shipments is based solely on the demand and requirements of our collaboration partners and is not ratable throughout the year.
Product sales decreased for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 primarily due to decreased product demand from our collaboration partners. We expect product sales for the full year of 2019 to be consistent with 2018. However, if NKTR-181 receives regulatory approval and commercial sales begin in 2019, we expect an increase in product sales in 2019 compared to 2018.

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Royalty Revenue
We receive royalty revenue from certain of our collaboration partners based on their net sales of commercial products. Royalty revenue decreased marginally for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 due to decreased sales of MOVANTIK® and ADYNOVATE® /ADYNOVI. However, we expect royalty revenue for the full year of 2019 to be consistent with 2018.
As part of its approval of MOVANTIK®, the FDA required AstraZeneca to perform a post-marketing, observational epidemiological study comparing MOVANTIK® to other treatments of opioid-induced constipation in patients with chronic, non-cancer pain. As a result, the royalty rate payable to us from net sales of MOVANTIK® in the U.S. by AstraZeneca can be reduced by up to two percentage points to fund 33% of the external costs incurred by AstraZeneca to fund such post approval study, subject to a $35.0 million aggregate cap. As of June 30, 2019, our cumulative share of the post-approval study expenses since 2015 has been $1.5 million. Any costs incurred by AstraZeneca can only be recovered by the reduction of the royalty paid to us. In no case can amounts be recovered by the reduction of a contingent payment due from AstraZeneca to us or through a payment from us to AstraZeneca.
Non-cash Royalty Revenue Related to Sale of Future Royalties
In February 2012, we sold all of our rights to receive future royalty payments on CIMZIA® and MIRCERA®. As described in Note 5 to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, this royalty sale transaction has been recorded as a liability that amortizes over the estimated royalty payment period. As a result of this liability accounting, even though the royalties from UCB and Roche are remitted directly to the purchaser of these royalty interests, we will continue to record revenue for these royalties. We expect non-cash royalties from net sales of CIMZIA® and MIRCERA® for the full year of 2019 to be consistent with 2018.
License, Collaboration and Other Revenue
License, collaboration and other revenue includes the recognition of upfront payments, milestone and other contingent payments received in connection with our license and collaboration agreements and certain research and development activities. The level of license, collaboration and other revenue depends in part upon the achievement of milestones and other contingent events, the continuation of existing collaborations, the amount of our research and development services, and entering into new collaboration agreements, if any.
License, collaboration and other revenue decreased for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 primarily due to the recognition of $1,059.8 million from the BMS Collaboration Agreement as described in Note 7 to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements. In addition, during the six months ended June 30, 2018, we recognized a $10.0 million milestone payment received in March 2018 as a result of the marketing authorization of ADYNOVITM in the EU in January 2018.
We expect that our license, collaboration and other revenue will decrease significantly in the full year of 2019 compared to 2018 as a result of the revenue recognized in 2018 from the BMS Collaboration Agreement.

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Cost of Goods Sold and Product Gross Margin (in thousands, except percentages)
 
Three months ended June 30,
 
Increase/
(Decrease)
2019 vs. 2018
 
Percentage
Increase/
(Decrease)
2019 vs. 2018
 
2019
 
2018
 
 
 
 
Cost of goods sold
$
5,018

 
$
5,522

 
$
(504
)
 
(9
)%
Product gross profit
(672
)
 
341

 
(1,013
)
 
<(100)%

Product gross margin
(15
)%
 
6
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Six months ended June 30,
 
Increase/
(Decrease)
2019 vs. 2018
 
Percentage
Increase/
(Decrease)
2019 vs. 2018
 
2019
 
2018
 
 
 
 
Cost of goods sold
$
10,458

 
$
12,168

 
$
(1,710
)
 
(14
)%
Product gross profit
(1,714
)
 
(10
)
 
(1,704
)
 
>100%

Product gross margin
(20
)%
 
<(1)%

 
 
 
 
Our strategy is to manufacture and supply polymer reagents to support our proprietary drug candidates or our third-party collaborators where we have a strategic development and commercialization relationship or where we derive substantial economic benefit. We have elected to only enter into and maintain those manufacturing relationships associated with long-term collaboration agreements which include multiple sources of revenue, which we view holistically and in aggregate. We have a predominantly fixed cost base associated with our manufacturing activities. As a result, our product gross profit and margin are significantly impacted by the mix and volume of products sold in each period.
Cost of goods sold decreased during the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 primarily due to decreased product sales. The decrease in product gross profit and product gross margin during the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 is primarily due to decreased product sales as well as a more unfavorable product mix in 2019 compared to 2018. We have a manufacturing arrangement with a partner that includes a fixed price which is less than the fully burdened manufacturing cost for the reagent, and we expect this situation to continue with this partner in future years. In addition to product sales from reagent materials supplied to this partner, we also receive royalty revenue from this collaboration. In the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, the royalty revenue from this collaboration exceeded the related negative gross profit.
We expect product gross margin to continue to fluctuate in future periods depending on the level and mix of manufacturing orders from our customers due to the predominantly fixed cost base associated with our manufacturing activities. We currently expect product gross margin to be negative in 2019 primarily as a result of the shipments to our partner where our sales are less than our fully burdened manufacturing cost. However, if NKTR-181 receives regulatory approval and commercial sales begin, we expect an increase in product sales, which would improve our margin.

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Research and Development Expense (in thousands, except percentages)
 
Three months ended June 30,
 
Increase/
(Decrease)
2019 vs. 2018
 
Percentage
Increase/
(Decrease)
2019 vs. 2018
 
2019
 
2018
 
 
 
 
Research and development expense
$
106,686

 
$
88,334

 
$
18,352

 
21
%